EL ARTE COMO ARTIFICIO; Autor. Shklovski. INTEGRANTES: Antonieta Ontiveros Ruiz; Adriana López Núñez; Gabriela G. Agis Mendoza. Dra. Flor de María. 16; Louis Vax, Arte y literatura fantásticas (Buenos Aires: Eudeba, ), p. 6. 2. Victor Shklovski, “El arte como artificio” in Teoría de la literatura de los. Shklovski, Viktor (). El arte como artificio (). In Todorov, Tzvetan (Ed.), Teoría de la literatura de los formalistas rusos. Argentina: Siglo XXI, pp.

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This is the case, as we shall see later, for the debate between Narratology and Ludology in video games. Children do not play so that others believe that, for example, teddy bears are truly alive when they are not.

As we shall see, gameplay, together with interactivity and the conflict between classic Narratology and new-born Ludology will mark the translation of classic fictional worlds to video game worlds themselves and, with it, the creation of a new Theory of Ludofictional Worlds.

Data emphasizes this curiosity even further. Here fiction remains potentially unlimited or incomplete — following what Dolezel previously established — but not the ludic configuration in game rules. El Arte como artificio – Shklovski ; For Maietti, the possible videoludic worlds mondi possibili videoludici are different from cinematic or literary worlds due to their level of access by interactivityp.

Addressing the world from its own semantics involves overcoming the formalist and structuralist framework of the study of texts and, by extension, its history, while allowing a new approach on the matter of fictional truth, referentiality and the potential of fiction at the transmedia level.

Second, and after our conceptual grounding, we shall proceed to outline the characteristics and main features of the so-called worlds of fiction, or fictional worlds, especially from the extensive contributions of literary theories.

User may accelerate the speed of the fall. In this way, ludofictional worlds may be studied from a Macrostructural Static Dimension, a Microstructural Dynamic Dimension and a Metaleptic Dimension. Thus, Meinongianism facilitates the conciliation between what exists in our world — for examples, the ruins of the city of Troy — and what does not exist but that, in a certain sense, has real traits — fictional characters.

Therefore, the structuring and complexity of the possible within the idea of possible worlds is explored, both from the perspective of Philosophy — with different relationships between the real and the possible, and the complexity that non-real characters and scenarios introduce to fiction — and its application to the field of Literary Fiction and theoretical-methodological concepts.


Falls at a given speed 7. In this case, recentering is not necessary since the reader is already located in the world of reference. The second major critical argument of Ludology considers that video games are simulations, while narrative is based on representation pp.

And, on the other hand, in what position is the freedom of man regarding the determinism of a possible world chosen by strict rationality? Mimesis is the product of the famous philosophical conflict between Platonic skepticism and Aristotelian optimism.

The work, written as a sequel to The Hobbit, appears in a very specific pragmatic context and is shared by both the author and potential readers: As we shall see later on, some of these worlds hold a hegemonic structural position — the main levels of the adventure, for example — in relation to other less relevant levels — hidden levels, secondary missions — while some fulfill other functions, such as those aimed at narrative contributions.

Thus, fiction consists of establishing a ludic type of pretense determined by shared and accepted norms of all participants.

Genette distinguished between the time of a story, which is the chronological order of events that Juul calls story time, from the time of narration, which is the order of events as presented — in this case, discourse time. In fact, possibilism goes one step further by considering that aliens pre-exist while they are, and if subsequently they exist for us for ahklovski, because they land on our planetit would not invalidate the previous statement.

Recently, Marie-Laure Ryan has emphasized the paradoxical and convenient alliance between certain ludologists and classical narratologists in which a narrative based on the act of speech by the narrator is praised and thereby, the mimetic possibilities of film or drama are excluded. Therefore, for Lewisian possibilism, all worlds are ontologically equal, on par with each other. Arfe ludologists, the concept of play takes on the form of paidea and, as a specific form of play, ludus.

With time, the interactive ability improved and mechanical gaming machines started to appear with great success such as The Automated Skill Shooter — the first shooting gaming machine with rifle included — Le Cochon Electriser — a mechanical pig that electrocuted the user 1. Dolezel has emphasized this ontological and referentialist perspective of the mimetic concept as one of the main hurdles for conceiving a truly satisfactory theory of fiction.

However, it has become very difficult, according to Frasca, to clearly determine who the narrativists are since they have never been specified.

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The first argument, structured in four main points, regards games and narratives as different things because they have different characteristics pp.


It does not resolve the immanent doubts of Modal Realism regarding non-existent worlds, but rather its metaphysical analysis, outlined in the essay Truth in Fictionaims to confirm if statements about fiction can have truth shklovskk or not Sainsbury,p. As Schaeffer rightly detects, deception involves an advantageous position for one of the parties, who performs the mimetic function of misleading, thus creating an asymmetry that does se occur, for example, shklovskii fiction.

What is more, the history of fiction is a history of social discredit. In other words, the fictionality of narration does not belong to one medium, but rather is determined, as we have seen earlier, by different pragmatic-semantic criteria.

In this sense, the origin of video games consists of this same relation to the machine: A plumber named Mario. On the shklovsmi hand, the creator of fictions is not subject to essentialist doctrine: Thus, this shklocski studies the physical and symbolic systems between the player and the world and vice versa, the internal leaps between different fictional levels and the sporadic and extraordinary disruptions to fictional boundaries that some characters may undergo.

It is evident that the intensional perspective does not deny, in any case, the participation of extensional or referentialist semantics, also known as world semantics Albadalejo,p.

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In scientific works of Philosophy, it is common to present examples with consecutive numbering between parentheses. This pragmatic situation in preconfiguration and reconfiguration thus implies that the work is written as fiction and read as fiction.

In other words, fiction does not exist completely independently of the real world but also it cannot be reduced to a mere comparison of our reality, as Dolezel has emphasized by criticizing the simplification and annulment of fictional features within a poorly understood mimesispp.

Also, if we assume humans reason like God Aguado Rebollo,pp. In this way, it set up the contingent states of things that are only actual in our reality from the realm of the possible.

Written between and and published in three volumes, the saga tells the stories of a group of heroes that must accompany Frodo, a hobbit from the Shire, on a quasi-suicidal mission: Some games do have narrative aspirations. In this context of audiovisual technological fascination, the first automated and proto-interactive gaming machines emerged. From their simplicity, the possible is, simply, e.